Astronomers have found the first-ever snow line seen around a distant star system using the newAtacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) telescope. This llandmark is thought to play an essential role in the formation and chemical make-up of planets around a young star.
ALMA spotted a never-before-seen CO snow line around TW Hydrae, a young star 175 light-years away from Earth. Astronomers believe this nascent solar system has many of the same characteristics that our own Solar System had when it was just a few million years old. The results were published in Science Express.
“ALMA has given us the first real picture of a snow line around a young star, which is extremely exciting because of what it tells us about the very early period in the history of our own Solar System,” said Chunhua “Charlie” Qi, a researcher with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., who led the international research team with Karin Oberg, a researcher with Harvard University and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.
“We can now see previously hidden details about the frozen outer reaches of another solar system, one that has much in common with our own when it was less than 10 million years old,” said Qi.
Snow lines have, until now, only been detected by their spectral signatures; they have never been imaged directly, so their precise location and extent could not be determined.
This is because snow lines form exclusively in the relatively narrow central plane of a protoplanetary disk. Above and below this region, stellar radiation keeps the gases warm, preventing them from forming ice. Only with the insulating effect of the concentrated dust and gas in the central plane of the disk can temperatures drop sufficiently for CO and other gases to cool and freeze.
Normally, this outer cocoon of hot gas would prevent astronomers from peering inside the disk where the gas had frozen out. “It would be like trying to find a small, sunny patch hidden within a dense fogbank,” said Oberg.
The astronomers were able to pierce the intervening CO fog by instead hunting for a different molecule known as diazenylium (N2H+). This fragile molecule is easily destroyed in the presence of CO gas, so would only appear in detectable amounts in regions where CO had frozen out, and is hence a proxy for CO ice.
Diazenylium shines brightly in the millimeter portion of the spectrum, which can be detected by radio telescope like ALMA here on Earth.
ALMA’s unique sensitivity and resolution allowed the astronomers to trace the presence and distribution of diazenylium, finding a clearly defined boundary approximately 30 astronomical units (AU) from TW Hydrae (one AU is the Sun-Earth distance).
“Using this technique, we were able to create, in effect, a photonegative of the CO snow in the disk surrounding TW Hydrae,” said Oberg. “With this we could see the CO snow line precisely where theory predicts it should be — the inner rim of the diazenylium ring.”
Snow lines, astronomers believe, serve a vital role in the formation of a solar system. They help dust grains overcome their normal tendency to collide and self-destruct by giving the grains a stickier outer coating. They also increase the amount of solids available and may dramatically speed up the planet formation process. Since there are multiple snow lines, each may be linked to the formation of specific kinds of planets.
Around a Sun-like star, the water snow line would correspond approximately to the orbit of Jupiter and the CO snow line would roughly correspond to the orbit of Neptune. The transition to CO ice could also mark the starting point where smaller icy bodies like comets and dwarf planets like Pluto would form.
Oberg also points out that the CO snow line is particularly interesting since CO ice is needed to form methanol, which is a building block of more complex organic molecules that are essential for life. Comets and asteroids could then ferry these molecules to newly forming Earth-like planets, seeding them with the ingredients for life.
These observations were made with only a portion of ALMA’s eventual full complement of 66 antennas. The researchers hope future observations with the full array will reveal other snow lines and provide additional insights into the formation and evolution of planets.
During an epoch of dramatic climate change 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens (modern humans) evolved in Africa. Several leading scientists are asking: Is the human species entering a new evolutionary, post-biological inflection point? Paul Davies, a British-born theoretical physicist, cosmologist, astrobiologist and Director of the Beyond Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science and Co-Director of the Cosmology Initiative at Arizona State University, says that any aliens exploring the universe will be AI-empowered machines. Not only are machines better able to endure extended exposure to the conditions of space, but they have the potential to develop intelligence far beyond the capacity of the human brain.
“If we build a machine with the intellectual capability of one human, then within 5 years, its successor is more intelligent than all humanity combined,” says Seth Shostak, SETI chief astronomer. “Once any society invents the technology that could put them in touch with the cosmos, they are at most only a few hundred years away from changing their own paradigm of sentience to artificial intelligence,” he says.
ET machines would be infinitely more intelligent and durable than the biological intelligence that created them. Intelligent machines would be immortal, and would not need to exist in the carbon-friendly “Goldilocks Zones” current SETI searches focus on. An AI could self-direct its own evolution, each “upgrade” would be created with the sum total of its predecessor’s knowledge preloaded.
“I think we could spend at least a few percent of our time… looking in the directions that are maybe not the most attractive in terms of biological intelligence but maybe where sentient machines are hanging out.” Shostak thinks SETI ought to consider expanding its search to the energy- and matter-rich neighborhoods of hot stars, black holes and neutron stars.
Before the year 2020, scientists are expected to launch intelligent space robots that will venture out to explore the universe for us.
“Robotic exploration probably will always be the trail blazer for human exploration of far space,” says Wolfgang Fink, physicist and researcher at Caltech. “We haven’t yet landed a human being on Mars but we have a robot there now. In that sense, it’s much easier to send a robotic explorer. When you can take the human out of the loop, that is becoming very exciting.”
“Consider the human brain,” says the physicist Sir Roger Penrose. “If you look at the entire physical cosmos, our brains are a tiny, tiny part of it. But they’re the most perfectly organized part. Compared to the complexity of a brain, a galaxy is just an inert lump.”
It concludes that the size of our frontal lobes — an area in the brain of mammals located at the front of each cerebral hemisphere — cannot solely account for humans’ superior cognitive abilities.
The study also suggest that supposedly more “primitive” areas, such as the cerebellum, were equally important in the expansion of the human brain. These areas may therefore play unexpectedly important roles in human cognition and its disorders, such as autism and dyslexia, say the researchers.
The Durham and Reading researchers, funded by The Leverhulme Trust, analyzed data sets from previous animal and human studies using phylogenetic (“evolutionary family tree”) methods, and found consistent results across all their data. They used a new method to look at the speed with which evolutionary change occurred, concluding that the frontal lobes did not evolve especially fast along the human lineage after it split from the chimpanzee lineage.
Human brains share a consistent genetic blueprint and possess enormous biochemical complexity. The same basic functional elements are used throughout the cortex and understanding how one area works in detail will uncover fundamentals that apply to the other areas as well, according to an earlier study completed by scientists at the Allen Institute for Brain Science.
Human brains share a consistent genetic blueprint, and possess enormous biochemical complexity, they said, based on the first deep and large-scale analysis of the vast data set publicly available in the Allen Human Brain Atlas. Among other findings, these data show that 84% of all genes are expressed somewhere in the human brain and in patterns that are substantially similar from one brain to the next.
You probably came across Lightworkers saying the Earth is becoming a Star, that we are approaching a more energetic place in our galaxy,there are ripples of high energy coming from the center of our galaxy, we are crossing the photon belt, that we are Ascending to higher dimension where we will be made out of energy so forth and so on…
According to mainstream Science the Sun is approaching a boundary between our Local Interstellar Cloud that is immersed in a much larger expanse of a million-degree hot gas, named the Local Bubble. This new region of space has clouds or cloudlets that are consist of dense dusty plasma and even though scientists have been predicting that we would definitely be hit by dense cloud in 50,000 years time, something less dense has ‘unexpectedly’ arrived. The ‘Ribbon’ that scientists have detected at the edge of our solar system is generated by particles within a strongly magnetised dusty plasma blowing from the direction of the galactic centre that appears to be focused by the galactic magnetic field, in a manner that some believe can be compared to the distortion of a fairground mirror.
Guess what happens when these particles that are FAR MORE HOTTER than the environment in our Solar System reach our SUN? Do you think that maybe it will have an effect on how the Sun spents its fuel? That maybe perhaps the Sun will become much more “violent” from our point of view?
These things happen in the Universe quite often and it is a Natural Process which has nothing to do with us, they are not here to punish or reward us, and according to all that which Lightworkers say there is quite a big chance we will really Ascend with the Earth to another dimension where you are not your body and your life you live here;)
Pack your shit folks we are about to blow up 😛
Check out these resources of info if you really wanna know where Im coming from
Photo of the Interstellar cloud with explanations
Pane Andov expected Cosmic Events Lecture
Susan Joy Renninson on what NASA is hiding